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The phrases in their context!


Suppose that each of these objects separately produces a passion; and that these two passions are in themselves contrary: We find from experience, that the want of relation in the objects or ideas hinders the natural contrariety of the passions, and that the break in the transition of the thought removes the affections from each other, and prevents their opposition.
It is the same case with comparison; and from both these phaenomena we may safely conclude, that the relation of ideas must forward the transition of impressions; since its absence alone is able to prevent it, and to separate what naturally should have operated upon each other.
When the absence of an object or quality re moves any usual or natural effect, we may certalnly conclude that its presence contributes to the production of the effect.
Thus we have endeavoured to account for pity and malice.
Both these affections arise from the imagination, according to the light, in which it places its object.
When our fancy considers directly the sentiments of others, and enters deep into them, it makes us sensible of all the passions it surveys, but in a particular manner of grief or sorrow.
On the contrary, when we compare the sentiments of others to our own, we feel a sensation directly opposite to the original one, viz.
a joy from the grief of others, and a grief from their joy.
But these are only the first foundations of the affections of pity and malice.
Other passions are afterwards confounded with them.
There is always a mixture of love or tenderness with pity, and of hatred or anger with malice.
But it must be confessed, that this mixture seems at first sight to be contradictory to my system.
For as pity is an uneasiness, and malice a joy, arising from the misery of others, pity should naturally, as in all other cases, produce hatred; and malice, love.
This contradiction I endeavour to reconcile, after the following manner.
In order to cause a transition of passions, there is required a double relation of impressions and ideas, nor is one relation sufficient to produce this effect.
But that we may understand the full force of this double relation, we must consider, that it is not the present sensation alone or momentary pain or pleasure, which determines the character of any passion, but the whole bent or tendency of it from the beginning to the end.
One impression may be related to another, not only when their sensations are resembling, as we have all along supposed in the preceding cases; but also when their im pulses or directions are similar and correspondent.
This cannot take place with regard to pride and humility; because these are only pure sensations, without any direction or tendency to action.
We are, therefore, to look for instances of this peculiar relation of impressions only in such affections, as are attended with a certain appetite or desire; such as those of love and hatred,
Benevolence or the appetite, which attends love, is a desire of the happiness of the person beloved, and an aversion to his misery; as anger or the appetite, which attends hatred, is a desire of the misery of the person hated, and an aversion to his happiness.